Optimizing Insurance Firm Capital During Increased Systemic Risk

Insurance firms need capital to absorb losses from expected events, unexpected but foreseeable events and unforeseen events “known-knowns, known-unknows, unknown-unknowns” . Investors will, in stressed times, no longer give insurance companies the benefit of the doubt and will assign a punitive cost of equity to the sector.

Contents: Determining Required Capital, Optimizing Capital, Financing at Lowest Cost, Maintaining Flexibility

Investment Banking – How to Buy a Company?

I have spent the bulk of my career in wealth management, asset management, investment banking and more recently in entrepreneurial FinTech. To develop domain expertise and bridge the gap between theory and practice I’ve published extensively over the years – though never around investment banking. The investment banking practitioner space doesn’t have much literature and one learns on the job. It is an incestuous world, with high entry barriers, much like the guilds in the medieval age to preserve high rents and transaction fees. I bring sunlight to this space here by explaining the typical process of buying a company.

Contents: Buy-Side Process, Assessment, Bidding Strategy, Negotiation and Execution, Transaction Considerations, Structure, Regulatory Issues, Financing, Accounting Treatment, Takeover Defenses, Valuation Methodologies, Tender and Closing, Timeline, Role of Advisor

Special Purpose Acquisition Corporation – SPAC

October 2020 has 290 SPACs with $86.5 billion in cash that have either filed for IPOs, are searching for targets, or have announced proposed mergers. I put on my investment banker hat and describe how a Special Purpose Acquisition Corporation can be set up. I then put on my investor hat and describe by modelling a hypothetical deal how sponsors and IPO pre-merger investors stand to make money and post-merger investors loose.

Takeaways: (i) SPAC is not a  poor man’s private equity, much as Alternative Mutual Fund is not a poor man’s hedge fund; (ii)SPAC structure results in severe dilution of the value of SPAC shares : post-merger share prices fall and price drops are highly correlated with dilution or cash shortfall ; (iii) SPAC investors bear structural cost of the dilution band pay for companies they bring public; (iv) SPAC creates substantial costs, misaligned incentives, and losses for investors who own shares at the time of SPAC mergers: SPAC shares tend to drop by one third of their value or more within a year following a merger (iv) Only those who buy shares in SPAC IPOs and either sell or redeem their shares prior to the merger do very well ( typically 10-13% historical annual return): IPO investors who are pre-merger shareholders should exit at the time of the merger, either by redeeming their shares or selling them on the market; (v) Investors that buy later and hold shares through SPAC mergers bear the costs of the generous deal given to IPO-stage investors (vi) Sponsor’s promote, underwriting fees, and dilution of post-merger shares caused by SPAC warrants and rights transfer value from SPAC investors to pre-merger investors; (vii)Sponsor has an incentive to enter into a losing deal for SPAC investors if its alternative is to liquidate.